The learner’s motivation to learn the foreign language is absolutely critical to success. Teaching and Researching: Motivation combines Dornyei’s own. Cultivating motivation is crucial to a language learner’s success – and therefore theory-driven account of motivation, “Teaching and Researching Motivation. Cultivating motivation is crucial to a language learner’s success – and therefore crucial for the language teacher and researcher to understand.

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We will return to this perspective in Section 2.

The main motivational influences during this phase are likely to be various goal teachinng e. In this respect, a more introspective type researchinv research approach is needed to explore qualitative developments in motivational experience over time, as well as to identify the contextual factors perceived to be in dynamic interplay with motivation.

Factor analytical studies examining data from samples in various parts of the world have again and again produced a factor made up of all, or many of, the above components, attesting to the fact that L2 motivation is generally associated with a positive outlook towards the L2 group and the values the L2 is linked with, regardless of the nature of the actual learning context. We make this point because so often, sornyei a teacher’s point of view, motivationn ation is seen as simply sparking an initial interest, for example, presenting an interesting language activity.

Within the past decade or so, socio-contextual factors have moved increasingly centre-stage in the analysis of motivation and have begun to push the boundaries of the cognitive tradition in exciting ways. Thus, flow can be seen as a heightened level of motivated task engagement; in many ways it is the optimal task experience. Undoubtedly, the most extensive and ambitious attempt to track motivational change to date is the large-scale longitudinal survey of Hungarian language learners conducted by Dornyei and his colleagues Dornyyei et al.

SDT perspectives on L2 motivation continue to be a strong research area and we will return to consider current developments in later chapters. As Ushiodaemphasises, the motivational pattern of Learner B may represent a potential later stage in the evolution of Learner As motivational thinking, as future goals assume greater importance or clarity. Thus, mastery and performance goals represent different success criteria and different reasons for engaging in achievement activity.

Perceived ingroup vitality teavhing low i. As Eccles et al. Learner A in the figure is motivated by positive experiences, with goal-directed patterns play- ing researvhing minor role.


Environment control, that is, manipulating the environment in a way that the resulting environmental or social pressure or control makes the abandoning of the intention more difficult e. Taken collectively, a striking feature of all main- stream motivation theories has been their lack of comprehensiveness. Thus, key themes to be covered in the book then involved how the concept of motivation could and should be broadened, and what kind of practical implications the extended paradigms were able to offer.

The move towards more socially grounded, dynamic and complex interacting systems in the analysis of L2 motivation is also in keeping with wider contempor- ary trends resrarching the field of applied linguistics that has highlighted emergentist and dynamic systems approaches to understanding SLA e.

Dprnyei of viewing cognition or motivation as located solely within the individual mind, these phenomena are coming to be viewed as dynam- ically constructed in discursive interactions between people situated in mktivation sociocultural contexts.

Teaching And Researching Motivation

In this final section, we will indicate some of the critical factors that seem researcihng be shaping this change and briefly characterise what we mean by the socio-dynamic phase.

You can encourage this by stimu- lating students to engage in classroom activities with motivation to learn, which they can do whether or not they find the activities intrinsically enjoyable. Strong identification exists with many other social categories, each of which provides adequate group identities and researcjing satisfactory intragroup status i. Ethnolinguistic vitality is determined by demographic representation, social status and institutional representation e.

From there, readers can explore a range of practical applications of research into those issues and ques- tions, and then take up the challenge of undertaking their own research, guided by the detailed and explicit research guides provided. Learning takes place through participation in cultural systems of activity, and knowledge itself is viewed as a cultural entity distributed across the environment where that knowledge is developed and deployed, embodied in phys- ical tools e.

All these and many other potential motives might have contributed to produ- cing the final outcome, but only a carefully executed deep researrching study would have the chance to get to the bottom of this.

These two patterns coincide almost exactly with the recommenda- tions made researchong educational psychology concerning the promotion of motivation-enhancing attributions.

Dweck, ; McCombs, This involves critical retrospection after action has been completed or possibly interrupted for a period e.

In a recent book-length overview of teachiing psychology of SLA, Dornyei b went one step further when he pointed out that an additional shortcoming of the process model was that although it reframed motiv- ation as a dynamically changing cumulative arousal in a person, it was still conceptualised within a process-oriented paradigm characterised by linear cause-effect relations. As Elliot and Ad b: In general terms, expanding the theoretical framework entailed incorporating additional variables derived from cognitive theories of motivation.


We shall see in later chapters how current theoretical approaches are rising to this challenge. The reason for such variation and selectivity is that, as noted in Chapter 1much past research has been concerned with the challenge of reduction, that is, trying to distil a relatively small number of motivational factors that would subsume or mediate numerous donyei factors, thereby producing a theoretical rather than descriptive framework.

In this teachhing, the shift to cognitive-situated perspec- tives through the 1 s led to a more explicit concern with the dynamic nature of motivation and its temporal dimension, and to the development of more process-oriented theoretical approaches, to which we now turn.

Full text of “Teaching And Researching Motivation”

The influence of this dorngei of thinking has also begun to be felt in the L2 motivation field, largely spurred by critical perspectives on the social psychological and cognitive approaches that have dominated to date. It should be noted that research in these areas has continued to evolve and develop to the pres- ent day, responding to the changing theoretical perspectives now shaping L2 motivation.

As Hickey and Granade point out, this sense of the term is rather different from their concern with how theories of human cognition and learning deriving from Vygotskian sociocultural theory may illuminate current situative perspectives on motivation.

Having considered theories of motivation in general, we turn now to our main focus in this book, the motivation to learn a second or foreign language. Any theory based on a single concept, whether that concept is reinforcement, self-worth, optimal motivation, or some- thing else, will be insufficient to deal with the complexity of classroom activities.

Again, in parallel with contemporary perspectives on the dynamic relationship between context and motivation, current analyses of fam- ily and parental influence draw attention to the bidirectional nature of the socialisation process between parents and children, as well as inter- actions with multiple socio-contextual forces Pomerantz et ah,