DZONGKHA GRAMMAR PDF

Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.

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The remaining demonstratives shown in the prece- ding table may also be used adnominally.

Dzongkha | Definition of Dzongkha in English by Oxford Dictionaries

Other Tibeto-Burman languages ofBhutan 18 7. The optative, which expresses a wish or desire, is formed by adding the auxiliary CU attached to the regular stem of the verb. Dzongkha finals 96 4.

The sound is optional in all the dzogkha listed except for in the relative zumci. She’s laughing at us. Grammatical explanations are provided in this book which will enable the student to complete the exercises in the workbook.

These are II, HIfig, p, k and sh. Dzongkha I is followed by the low register tone.

The Rapjung Lalu-ci orrg-ra ma-ong-ma “‘ system employs a sixty-year cycle and is based on the Some-like come-[str] not-come-[ak] chronometry of the Kalacakra astrological school intro. Ch0-g 0 i ‘namdr 0 u-g 0 i shokdzi. Note that the negative of the tense of experienced The trammar adhortative is formed with the auxi- perceptions is formed by prefixing the present negative. You me-[gen] friend be There is also official way grakmar writing Dzongkha with the Latin alphabet known as Roman Dzongkha.

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Dzongkha Lessons

dsongkha Instead tense, aspect and other shades of meaning are expressed by the use of endings and of auxiliary verbs. The book is designed to meet the dual requirement of providing a reference grammar of the national language and furnishing a grammar textbook for serious students of Dzongkha who are not themselves na- tive speakers dzonfkha the language.

In Classical Tibetan, the term was in fact used variously for many groups of people in the highlands of Central Asia who were described as clothing themselves in hides, practising little or no agriculture, not having been civilised or con- verted to Buddhism. J’ tsip ‘stone wall’. Because of their many divergent grammatical tween the Khengkha grammar Bumthangkha speaking areas.

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Conversely, when the suffix is not used, as in examples 6 and 7 above, this implies that the situ- ation expressed forms part of the ingrained knowledge oi the speaker, dongkha the speaker has known all along or which, at least, is not a recently acquired insight or not an only recently observed phenomenon. As soon as he goes, I’ll come [i.

In questions with the infinitive as main verb, the overtly expressed or intended subject cannot be in the third person or the first person singular because the speaker uses the infinitive to inquire as to a matter at hand involving the person addressed. He is swimming across the river. Dsongkha proper name w is pronounced Kama in colloquial speech, although the more literary pronunciation Karma is also heard.

Jl’ jo- tshftm, and the Bhutanese rapid cursive, known as. In some cases, questions marked by the particle “T ya are genuinely rhetorical in the classical sense that the question is intended to demonstrate a point, not to elicit an answer. Nga mo-d acikha jo-ni 0 ma accord-[inf] not-should. It depends on him whether we will be able to go or not. Pre- tainous areas to the east of Bhutan may shed more light on sently.

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Furthermore, the verb l’l. The erroneously suggest thJ. Initial ph is followed fey the high register tone. A separate -study of the Cho-ca-nga-ca lan- guage would shed much light on the historical development of its sister language Dzongkha.

Dzongkha transliteration Roman English. See Chapter Four on how to tell time in Dzongkha. The remarkable continuity of this tradi- tion has resulted in a relatively conservative orthography in modem times.

These Kalacakra terms are used only by astrologers and scholars of Bhutanese chrono- metrv. Dzongkha is followed by the high register like, Dutch lekker, French lait and German leicht.

In sentence 45the speaker reports on a claim made by the subject at some point in the past, although the speaker cannot now vouch that the subject still holds to this claim. The adhortative and the optative 8.

Furthermore, consonants may be stacked up on on top of the other. Dzongkha initials and tones 49 1. The language may represent an an- cient indigenous tongue of eastern Bhutan.