TRAFFIC, a strategic alliance of WWF and IUCN, the International Union for the .. Find out Few Benefits of Liver Detox Diet The liver works as the human physique’s pure filtering system, processing Lei federal The forest legislation can be understood as a set of laws governing the relations supervisory actions of the body, led to publication of the Law 11,/ of , e , de 22 de dezembro de ; revoga as Leis nos , de
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However, to simulate the PPF curves and investigate the tradeoffs among competing land uses, we used annual profits i. This map was used to identify areas within the FSF with high potential in the first scenario simulated and to 5 in the second for biodiversity conservation.
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Table of Contents Alerts. Figure 6 b shows the same results for areas assigned to li conservation. Abstract Logging in natural forests is a vital economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. Our model is able to generate simple estimates of government rent capture, assuming concessionaires are only able to capture normal profits.
For this reason, the objective function maximizes profits while taking land use constraints into account. In the two multiple use scenarios investigated, the potential for logging was considered equal to 1 for any stand in which the estimate of logging profitability was 1124 than zero, and zero otherwise. Equation 1 is then modified and the objective of the program becomes maximizing profits from concessions constrained by a minimum number of stands—or a minimum score—assigned to alternative land uses.
View at Google Scholar R. We bring together two lines of research in forestry and natural resource management to help us develop our planning model.
Due to the lack of suitable data, audit costs were assumed to be equivalent to certification audit costs, which vary depending on the size of the management unit.
Each stand has an annual harvestable area denominated in hectares. Figures 6 c and 6 dotherwise, show the same curves considering the scenario with differentiated weights among stands with potential for community use and biodiversity conservation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
We begin by establishing the basic selective logging timber supply problem, where the decision variables determine the amount of volume per ha to harvest.
International Journal of Forestry Research
Third, it can be used to investigate the tradeoffs among market and nonmarket uses in terms of reduced timber revenues. Alternatively, the planner can impose a minimum score to be achieved for a given land use by assigning different weights for each land use. The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical tool to support this decisionmaking. In the case of FSF, the decrease in the NPV caused by an increase in the proportion of the State Forest dedicated to community use is larger than the decrease caused by biodiversity conservation, ceteris paribus.
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In this section, we report a series of results from the model applied to FSF. We also estimated the rent distribution between concessionaires and the government. The major challenge facing public planners now lies in allocating land across multiple uses to meet multiple objectives, often with little information about socioeconomic and biological conditions.
For the largest problem that includes all land uses, the model solves for 13, continuous variables and binary variableswith 14, constraints. These opportunity costs are not uniform across every management decision. FSF is covered by dense forests and displays little evidence of use and human occupation in the extreme eastern and southern portions [ 14 ].
In the second set of simulations, we assume that sawmills move into 14 urban centers close to the forest which currently have no sawmills, assuming new mills would be built to better take advantage of the legal timber supply from FSF. In either situation, expressed in 6represents the policy-driven minimum number of stands or the minimum score across alternative nonlogging land uses. Developing this information is an important priority for public forests planning.
To give a better sense of the size of a cell in forest management terms, a cell of 2, hectares would represent a small-scale concession under the provisions of the PFML.
We simulated the production possibility frontier PPF and investigated the tradeoffs among different land uses for three scenarios using existing logging centers and also when the centers move to cities closer to FSF: Although this work was reviewed lek the United States Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official agency policy.
This is important for planners because it can accommodate values of noncommercial land uses in a more meaningful way. Brazil is moving ahead with its plan to establish a forest concessions system while trying to take full account of these experiences. To receive news and publication updates for International Journal of Forestry Research, enter your email address in the box below. As ofCalha Norte contained 64 million hectares of protected areas.
NPV decreased with an increase in the number of stands dedicated to communities.
Obviously, as the number of stands assigned to alternative land uses such as biodiversity conservation and use by communities is increased, the number of stands logged, timber volume harvested, and profits from logging decrease. The second scenario investigates the impacts of varying the weights for stands potentially assigned to nonlogging land uses. Every three years the interval represented byBrazilian law requires independent audits of concessionaire performance within the concessions.
Figures 4 c and 4 d show results when weights are differentiated across stands with noncommodity use potential. Baraloto for comments and suggestions. The model developed in this study is not intended to replace these efforts 1128, rather, by incorporating data generated from these surveys, given planners a method to easily visualize alternative planning landscapes.
In other words, the economic model maximizes the annual profits originated from the annual allowable area for harvest of